Foreign exchange transaction risk refers to the possibility of economic losses caused by changes in exchange rates during the delivery and settlement of external debt and debt by enterprises or individuals.
Foreign exchange transaction risk refers to the possibility of economic losses caused by changes in exchange rates during the delivery and settlement of external debt and debt by enterprises or individuals. China's foreign exchange market has become an important part of the global market system, but for most Chinese enterprises and residents, foreign exchange risk is still a topic that has not been mentioned much. After the exchange rate reform in July 2005, with the gradual implementation of a more flexible mechanism for the formation of the RMB exchange rate, the fluctuation of the RMB exchange rate became increasingly significant, and foreign exchange risk accompanied by fluctuating exchange rates became a major issue that people had to pay attention to.
What are the risks of foreign exchange trading?
1. Trading risk
Transaction risk refers to the risk of losses caused by changes in the ratio of foreign currency to local currency during the transaction settlement process of enterprises. In other words, when conducting foreign trade transactions, enterprises generally value transactions in foreign currency. During the transaction process, losses are incurred due to changes in the foreign exchange rate that result in a decrease in the actual cash flow obtained in the local currency or an increase in the actual cash paid in the local currency. This risk mainly arises in the process of business operations, with specific accounts presented as unsettled accounts receivable or payable denominated in foreign currencies, advance receipts or prepayments, futures trading, forward acceptance bills, international investment, and international lending.
2. Translation risk
According to China's accounting regulations, Chinese enterprises need to use local currency to calculate their operating conditions and financial content over a period of time. Translation risk refers to the risk faced by foreign trade enterprises in the process of converting foreign currency claims and debts into cost currency when processing accounting statements. In the conversion process, due to the different evaluation situations of assets and liabilities during different periods, resulting in different gains and losses, and the varying levels of exchange rate changes, there will be certain evaluation risks in the accounting process.
3. Economic risks
Economic risk refers to the risk that a company's future earnings may change due to the unpredictability of exchange rates during its operation. Economic risk is only an expected assessment of potential risks that may arise in the future. It is a process of overall market planning for foreign trade enterprises and a reflection of their predictive ability. The accuracy of the predictive results will directly affect the strategic decisions of enterprises in production, sales, market development, and fundraising.
4. Foreign exchange trading risk
Foreign exchange buying and selling risk arises during the process of buying and selling foreign exchange, manifested as speculative behavior in the foreign exchange market, earning profit from price differences through exchange rate fluctuations. This risk is the main risk for enterprises engaged in foreign exchange trading.
5. Foreign exchange reserve risk
To meet the needs of foreign currency receipts and payments, foreign trade enterprises will reserve a certain amount of foreign exchange. During the holding period of foreign exchange reserves, if the exchange rate of the reserve currency changes, causing a loss in the value of foreign exchange reserves, it will form foreign exchange reserve risk. To effectively avoid this risk, foreign trade enterprises should adjust their structure at any time based on changes in exchange rates and payment demands, in order to minimize losses for the enterprise.
Understanding and managing these risks is crucial in foreign exchange trading. The use of appropriate risk management tools and strategies, such as stop-loss orders and reasonable position control, can help traders reduce risk and protect funds. In addition, a reasonable trading plan, sufficient market research, and continuous learning are also key to reducing risks.